You can drive on a damaged CV joint for a little while at least, but there's no telling how long it will last. These can not be repaired but only replaced. Essentially, this will brake the axle, leaving you with a car that won't go anywhere.
Loud clicking noises when turning. One of the most common and most noticeable symptoms of a bad or failing CV axle shaft assembly is an audible clicking noise when turning. When CV axles become excessively worn, the joints will become loose and click when turning. Also, you will find greae on the edge of tire and feel excessive vibration while driving.
Combined with the lack of lubrication from not enough grease, the joint will eventually tear itself apart. If your axles are failing, you'll still technically be able to drive your car, however, once broken completely, your car won't move, and if they brake while you're driving, it could cause a serious accident.
The answer is simply - NO. Powertrain warranty generally does not cover items like clutches, CV joints, and CV axle joints. Although the powertrain warranties are longer then any other warranties, like the pumper-to-bumper warranties for example. This repair can be very costly and can be avoided by simply driving carefully and not running over the road bump like a maniac. Slow down at every bump and avoid using roads with heavy road work and broken tarmac.